Research Projects | Completed Projects

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14-03: Developing a Training Video and Manual for Best Practices and Techniques in Clearing Different Interchange Configurations and Other Geometric Layouts

Problem

There are many types of interchange configurations and intersection layouts that must be cleared during winter maintenance operations. These include, but are not limited to: diamond, cloverleaf, single-point urban interchange (SPUI), roundabout, Michigan left (boulevard turnaround), continuous flow intersection, diverging diamond, collector distributor lanes/interchange, and auxiliary turn lanes. There are numerous pass sequences that snow and ice professionals can use to clear a given snow route, intersection or interchange configuration. Agencies need a resource that provides guidance on the most efficient and effective means for snow removal utilizing common equipment setups.

Objective

This project will involve researching and documenting current snow removal practices used by transportation agencies to determine the most efficient practices for clearing various interchange and intersection geometries. The goal is to develop resources that will help agencies better train their operators, justify the purchase of specialized equipment, manage resources, and improve service levels to the motoring public.

Expected Results

A 15-20 minute video that showcases the most efficient pass sequences to properly clear various interchange and intersection layouts.

The final webinar took place on October 18, 2018.

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16-01: Utilization of AVL/GPS Technology: Case Studies

Problem

Much is known about what winter maintenance AVL/GPS technologies are available from different vendors as well as which highway agencies are making use of them. Among other sources, these have been documented through Clear Roads project 14-01: Synthesis on GPS/AVL Equipment Used for Winter Maintenance. However, highway agencies will significantly benefit from a deeper examination of winter maintenance AVL/GPS implementation.

Objective

The goal of this project was to help state DOTs make more informed decisions with respect to implementation of winter maintenance AVL/GPS.

Results

Detailed agency case studies were developed in this project to bring to light more nuanced issues related to winter maintenance AVL/GPS. These case studies highlight the types of issues that agencies should consider, provide guidance for successful implementation, and can serve as templates to help agencies get the best value out of different levels of AVL/GPS applications.

The Final Webinar was held on August 31, 2018.

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16-06: Training Video for the Implementation of Liquid-Only Plow Routes

Problem

While some agencies have used liquid-only plow routes with great success, others are unable to secure the buy-in needed to implement this practice. Clear Roads believes this is largely a communication issue—a need to put the right message in front of the right audience in a compelling way and to dispel myths and misconceptions.

Objective

The goal of this project was to help state DOTs garner support for and accelerate the implementation of liquid-only plow routes.

Results

This project resulted in the creation of two videos designed to explain the benefits of liquid-only plow routes, the fundamentals of how and when to use liquid-only plowing, and steps to implement a program.

The final webinar took place on May 23, 2018.

 

Implementation of Liquid-Only Plow Routes (Full Video)

 

Implementation of Liquid-Only Plow Routes (Short Video)

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16-04: Emergency Operations Methodology for Extreme Winter Storm Events

Problem

Severe winter storms develop through the combination of multiple meteorological factors. These severe winter storms bring threats of damage to infrastructure and personal health impacts from low temperatures and/or strong winds, but often exacerbate these threats with heavy accumulations of snow.

Many state agencies lack the plans necessary to guide them through an effective response that needs to be coordinated between multiple agencies and jurisdictions who typically do not interact on a day-to-day basis. Therefore, these types of plans are often most effective when they provide a formal communications protocol and contact information for these agencies to follow.

Objective

The goal of this project was to provide guidance to transportation agencies seeking to develop or improve and expand their current plans and policies for handling severe-to-extreme storm events. Such events typically include the involvement of multiple departments within a transportation agency and coordination of multiple agencies (including state and local) affected by the extreme winter weather.

Results

Researchers found that agencies with effective response plans for severe winter weather employ a transportation emergency management office, facilitate interagency cooperation, and embrace technologies for tracking and reallocating equipment. State DOTs can use the case studies and recommendations in the final report to help improve their own response plans and develop more efficient, flexible approaches to ensuring public safety during intense winter storms.

Final webinar took place on June 28, 2018.

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12-03: Understanding the Chemical and Mechanical Performance of Snow and Ice Control Agents on Porous or Permeable Pavements

Problem

Winter maintenance field personnel have reported several issues related to pavement performance when applying snow and ice control agents on porous or permeable asphalt pavement surfaces.

These pavement surfaces appear to refreeze more quickly and stay wet longer than other pavements. Field personnel report that they require 25 to 30 percent more deicing agent, and that in some conditions these pavements refreeze well after the conclusion of snow and ice control activities.

Objective

This project provides information and guidelines to help determine the optimum maintenance strategies for porous or permeable asphalt pavements, including:

  • Dense graded pavements
  • Open graded pavements
  • Ultrathin Friction Course

Results

This project was closed out after reaching the five year maximum time limit for contracts, per the State of Minnesota Statutes. Because of this, not all deliverables were able to be completed and approved by the Clear Roads Technical Advisory Committee (TAC).

The following deliverables (also posted under Final Products) include:

  • Task 6: White Paper on Chemical and Mechanical Interactions (98% complete)
  • Task 7: Synthesis of Best Practices (95% complete)
  • Task 8: Field Testing Recommendations (75% complete)
  • Task 9: Final Report (50% complete – not approved by TAC)
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15-02: Identification and Recommendations for Correction of Equipment Factors Causing Fatigue in Snowplow Operators

Problem

Driver fatigue among winter maintenance workers during winter emergencies can be prevalent as these workers are not bound by prescriptive hours-of-service rules. During these winter events, equipment operators work long, stressful hours, and fatigue can be a major problem resulting in higher crash rates, lower productivity, and increased health issues.

A recent body of research in fatigue management indicates that other factors, including in-cab and external equipment, are involved in driver fatigue and that there is no one simple solution available to mitigate driver fatigue and improve safety performance.

Objective

The goal of this project was to identify in-cab and external equipment factors that cause operator fatigue and make recommendations to reduce, eliminate, or correct these factors.

Results

This project will produce actionable and implementable improvements able to be applied to snowplow trucks. Therefore, recommendations that can provide quick turnaround and low cost solutions are preferred, but more in-depth and higher cost solutions may also be considered.

The final webinar took place on October 30, 2017.

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14-02: Quantifying the Impact That New Capital Projects Will Have on Roadway Snow and Ice Control Operations

Problem

New capital projects increase the time and money required to complete Roadway Snow and Ice Control Operations (RSIC). Unfortunately, this increased winter maintenance burden is rarely quantified and, therefore, is not considered during the early stages of the capital project development process. A method is needed for estimating this increased financial burden placed on winter maintenance operations by new capital projects.

Objective

This project’s objective was to develop an automated method of quantifying the anticipated impact that new capital projects will have on costs for RSIC. This method could be used in the early stages of project development to determine if an agency will need additional resources, such as trucks, salt, fuel, and manpower, to accomplish winter maintenance tasks after the project is completed. This methodology could also be used by maintenance managers to justify requests for additional resources after projects are complete.

Results

This project developed an Excel-based decision support tool to help agencies calculate the financial impact of capital improvements on snow and ice control operations. Researchers also developed recommendations for how winter maintenance personnel can work within the project development process to include RSIC operations into the considerations for geometric design of roadways.

The project’s final closeout webinar was conducted on November 14, 2017.

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14-05: Snow Removal Performance Metrics

Problem

Winter maintenance performance measurement and establishment of service standards are essential ingredients for DOTs in benchmarking success. All state DOTs measure their snow removal success in some way or another, but measures are often inconsistent and it’s difficult to determine if existing measures are accurately assessing the success of winter maintenance programs. In 2007, the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) undertook a comprehensive study of performance measures and processes. The results were published in NCHRP Web-Only Document 136: Performance Measures for Snow and Ice Control Operations. The information in that report needs to be updated.

Objective

The objective is to identify and understand the snow removal performance metrics currently in use by the snow and ice states. Clear Roads wants to know how snow and ice states are measuring their accomplishments and how they are communicating their levels of success both internally and externally. Further, Clear Roads would like to identify commonalities and differences between agencies in order to develop a matrix of performance measures, which can be used by agencies to assist them in achieving their winter maintenance goals.

Expected Results

A matrix of snow removal performance measures, along with recommendations for scoping a Phase 2 project, which will help agencies develop and implement a performance measurement program.

The final webinar took place June 30, 2016.

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12-04: Snowplow Operator and Supervisor Training

Problem

Every state provides some training for snowplow operators and supervisors. However, each training program has its own strengths and focus areas. Clear Roads has identified the best and most extensive training materials from all its member states and partners, but needs help organizing these materials into classroom courses that could be utilized by any Clear Roads state.

Objective

The purpose of this project was to develop a series of flexible training modules for snowplow operators and supervisors that could be used, modified, and updated by any of the Clear Roads member agencies to serve as partial-day or multiple-day classroom-style training courses.

Results

The key outcomes of the project are presentations, course guides, exams and other training support materials for the 22 topics identified by the project subcommittee. For details, see the List of Modules and Descriptions under Final Products on the right side of this page.

Clear Roads is making the training materials available free of charge to any agency, including local and county highway departments. For access, contact Clear Roads Administrator Greg Waidley at 608-490-0552 or greg.waidley@ctcandassociates.com.

This project was featured in an article in the February 2018 issue of Roads & Bridges magazine.

This project’s close-out webinar was conducted on February 3, 2017.

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15-03: North American Study on Contracting Snow and Ice Response

Problem

Transportation agencies are faced with many challenges, including reduced funding, an aging and decreased fleet size, increased maintenance costs, staffing reductions, and pressure to outsource or contract traditional “in-house” functions. These challenges require agencies to continually investigate and evaluate the most effective practices for managing resources required for winter maintenance operations.

Objective

The objective of this project was to gain an understanding of the state of the practice in contracting for snow and ice control by state DOTs. Investigators documented the costs, benefits, practices and complexities associated with contracting to perform snow and ice control functions.

Results

The analysis conducted through this project provides states with the information needed to modify and improve their own snow and ice control contracting practices to save money and better manage resources.

The final webinar presentation was given on December 28, 2016.

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